The importance of the flora and vegetation in Podyjí NP from the viewpoint of nature protection
(Musil – 2008 – updated article from the original Podyjí NP website 1998)
The notable natural variety of this territory leads to the occurrence of a large concentration of plant species on a small area. On the territory of the national park and its buffer zone around 1300 species of vascular plants, around 300 species of mosses, more than 800 species of higher fungi and around 300 species of lichens have been recorded so far. At present we are still making significant discoveries of new or previously lost flora species. The Alps Yarrow (Achillea tanacetifolia) was discovered here in Podyjí in 1990 and this was a new species for Moravia. In 2006 the rare plants Mudwort (Limosella aquatica) and Broad-fruited Cornsalad (Valerianella rimosa) were discovered here. Plant species which are already known are recorded at new localities every year, especially in the case of annual plant species which colonise fallow or wasteland, which is a rare and disappearing biotope type at an early stage of succession. The Podyjí NP Administration has begun to support and research such localities in detail because they provide habitats for such interesting flora but are also of entomological interest. Rare and endangered insect species, especially beetles, are often bound to particular plant species which only grow on these fallow lands. In 2007 the Moss Buxbaumia viridis – a species of European importance – was rediscovered at Ledové sluje, 89 years after its last recorded occurrence.
As well as elements of Hercynian and Ponto-Pannonian flora, for which Podyjí NP represents their migration border, we can also encounter several peri-Alpine species here. These have migrated from the south and the Podyjí territory is their only locality, or one of only a few recent localities, in the Czech Republic. These plants include Yellow Ox-eye Daisy (Buphthalmum salicifolium), the Thorow-wax Bupleurum affine, Red-tipped Cudweed (Filago lutescens) and the Hungarian Mullein (Verbascum speciosum). These plants are listed in the Red Lists and also in the List of Specially Protected Plant Species as being critically endangered. Other plants which grow in Podyjí and are also registered as critically endangered include the Hartwort (Tordylium maximum), the Sedge (Carex hordeistichos), the Mercury (Mercurialis ovata), Black Hellebore (Veratrum nigrum), Garland Flower (Daphne cneorum) and others. Of the vascular plants which are protected by the NATURA 2000 system, the following floral beauties are protected by Podyjí NP – Great Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla grandis) and Lady’s Slipper (Cypripedium calceolus). Podyjí NP has also been given the task of protecting a unique biotope which is found nowhere else in central Europe – the belt of steppe grassland and heathland communities between Znojmo and Hnanice. All of this illustrates the importance of Podyjí from the viewpoint of protecting the phytogenic fund and biodiversity.
A separate issue concerns the invasive and expansive plant species in the NP, which you can read about in a detailed botanical article.
Act No. 114/1992 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection sets out the category of “specially protected species”, which is divided into three groups according to the how endangered each species is. Appendix No. II (List of Specially Protected Plant Species), which was a part of Decree No. 395/1992 Coll. and implements some parts of Act No. 114/1992 Coll., includes vascular plants and fungi. The following tables do not include vascular plant and fungi species which are also included in the Red Lists.
Summary of specially protected vascular plant species recorded in Podyjí NP up to 2007
|Number of species||Category|
|Critically endangered||Severely endangered||Endangered|
|Czech Rep. total||246||149||91|
Summary of specially protected fungi species recorded in Podyjí NP up to 2007
|Number of species||Category|
|Critically endagered||Severely endangered||Endangered|
|Czech Rep. total||27||13||6|