Podyjí National Park lies on the south-eastern edge of the Bohemian Massif Province and further in to the Bohemian-Moravian Sub-province and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands Region, which is further divided in this region into the Znojmo Hilly Land (the central part of the NP) and the Bítov Hilly Land (the western part of the NP). The easternmost part of the NP belongs to the Western Carpathians Province and further to the Outer Carpathian Foredeep Sub-province and the Western Outer Carpathian Foredeep Region. Here this consists of the Dyje-Svratka Basin and its raised part – the Jaroslavice Hilly Land.
The territory of the national park has the character of a rugged hilly land with a folded and faulted structure and the deep effusive minerals of the Bohemian Massif with a block and grainy structure and with extensive remnants of peneplaned flattened to rugged hill country.
The shape of the relief is a reflection of the varying resistance of the minerals and the degree to which they have been disturbed. We can see the differences between the sharper (more angular) shapes of the landforms which are built of gneiss and the more rounded landforms which are built of granite or crystalline limestone and the flattened forms on the Neogene sediments on the eastern edge of the national park.
The most significant landforms in the relief are the valleys of the Dyje river and its tributaries. The river formed unique incised meanders which developed as a consequence of the lowering of the erosion base, which predominantly took place in the Neogene. In the valley of the Dyje river we can see significant periglacial effects, such as frost-riven cliffs, extensive talus fields, boulder streams and the so-called “stone seas”. The acceleration of their development always took place at the beginning and end of each individual Ice Age.¨
The recent development of the surface of the NP territory is characterised by the increasing influence and intervention by humans. These human interventions include various kinds of mineral extraction, especially quarrying of building stone, waste dumping, building of mills, weirs, millstreams, agricultural terraces on the slopes etc. In deforested areas the formation of the relief is influenced by erosive and sedimentary phenomena on the arable land. In the forest stands the relief is influenced by the consequences of clear-cut felling in the recent past and the transport of timber. Erosion on the sparsely forested slopes is a consequence of the overpopulations of game animals. The natural development of the Dyje river channel including the transport of sediments is negatively influenced by the existence of the Vranov reservoir and the energetic regime of waterflows below the dam and its integral hydroelectric plant.